Once the risks have been identified and ranked, the next step is how to quantify the likely impact on the financial results of the firm. The first and most obvious question is what available quantification techniques are available for each risk on the list. This will depend on the availability of relevant data and commercially produced models.
Archive for the ‘Casualty’ Category
Loss reserves are arguably one of the most difficult risks to estimate and monitor. In fact, inadequate pricing and deficient loss reserves have been the leading cause of property/casualty company impairments. According to A.M. Best, from 1969 to 2009 they triggered approximately 40 percent of all impairments - four times more than those emanating from natural catastrophes (1). There are many uncertainties in managing long-tailed, heavily legislated lines of business that can be triggered from emerging risks. Unforeseen inflation and anticipated legislative changes over a 10 to 30 year period present many demands. In order to prepare for emerging risk scenarios, future trends and related uncertainties need to be explicitly identified, contemplated and estimated.
Casualty (re)insurers do not cover standalone emerging risks. A product defect (with recall) or a latent bodily injury resulting from new technological nano-products or Unmanned Aerial Systems risks, could lead to class action lawsuits and ultimately large liability claims including products liability as well as professional liability. This emergent reality, however, is difficult to address. A carrier would need to identify and model several possible epicenters of a liability chain reaction and follow their rapidly spreading implications throughout a portfolio. Without new powerful casualty modeling capabilities as well as highly granular data on the products and subcomponents that each of their insureds manufacture and sell globally, this process would be time-consuming, impossible to complete and likely to miss key threats and underlying exposures.
The careful evaluation of each new risk added to a portfolio moves the firm toward a metrics-based approach to risk and capital management, facilitating governance and enhancing the deployment of capital. The only problem for casualty writers, however, has been the availability of data and models to determine the true effects of a new risk to the carrier’s entire portfolio. Even if a casualty carrier wanted to make the most of an ERM framework, it would be limited by data, models and technology. Fortunately, this situation is changing.
One purpose of enterprise risk management (ERM) is to help (re)insurers determine how much capital is needed to support the risks they assume (subject to risk tolerance). Instead of segmenting portfolios and handling each peril on a standalone basis, a robust ERM methodology would use a holistic approach to risk and capital management where threats are identified and monitored, all action plans are developed and risks are measured.
From one of GC Capital Ideas’ more popular categories, we highlight the top Chart Room stories viewed during the third quarter of 2016:
1. The Insurance Of Things & Industry 4.0 - A Matrix View: Technological progress and the accumulation of assets have not only stimulated the development of insurance products; they have in turn been nurtured by the availability of these offerings.
2. Guy Carpenter Sees Market Shift Towards Core Model Strategy: Insurers and reinsurers are increasingly adopting a core model strategy based around a detailed assessment of its capabilities, instead of the multi-model or blended approach as investment in modeling capabilities comes under pressure, says Matthew Eagle, Head of GC Analytics® - International at Guy Carpenter.
3. Solvency II Equivalence In The International (Re)insurance Landscape: The concept of equivalence under Solvency II determines to what extent (re)insurance entities outside Europe can operate within the European Union (EU) while relying solely on their local solvency standards. The ability to operate in the EU is a significant issue that impacts multinational (re)insurance companies and groups.
4. Businesses and Their Exposures: As referenced in the table Taxonomy of Cyber Risk for Corporations below, the potential losses deriving from cyber-attacks or non-malicious information technology failures fall into 11 categories illustrated in the second table Loss Categories Deriving From Cyber Attacks and Non-Malicious IT Failures.
5. (Re)Insurers Modifying Their Behavior Ahead Of A.M. Best’s New Ratings And BCAR Criteria: The launch of A.M. Best’s (Best) new ratings and Stochastic-based Best’s Capital Adequacy Ratio (BCAR) draft criteria became an inflection point for (re)insurers worldwide. The 2016 changes represent Best’s first major overhaul in over 20 years and are leading to a growing number of changes in market behaviors across the company size spectrum. (Re)insurers are assessing their risk and capital management positions in anticipation of the impacts of Best’s new requirements even though the changes will not result in massive differences in its published ratings nor likely become effective until later in 2017, according to Eric Simpson, Managing Director and Mark Murray, Senior Vice President of Guy Carpenter.
6. Reinsurers Standing Firm As Insurers Look To Consolidate: As large-scale multi-line insurers enter a period of consolidation following the significant drive to rationalize long-term strategic reinsurance purchasing, recent renewal activity suggests reinsurers are now increasingly resisting shorter-term aggressive buying strategies, according to Nick Frankland, CEO of EMEA Operations and Chris Klein, Head of EMEA Strategy Management at Guy Carpenter.
7. Risk Profile, Appetite, and Tolerance: Fundamental Concepts in Risk Management and Reinsurance Effectiveness: Prior to the recent turbulence in the financial markets, insurers and reinsurers were increasing their use of enterprise risk management (ERM) to make risk and capital management decisions. While this was driven in part by rating agencies and regulators, many carriers began to recognize the value of metric-based frameworks and capital models in evaluating their portfolios.
8. Hurricane Hermine: Hurricane Hermine made landfall overnight near Saint Marks, Florida, with maximum sustained winds of 80 mph, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC). This is the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma (October, 2005). Impacts under storm surge have been quite severe for some areas of the northwest Florida coast including Cedar Key. The storm has also caused downed trees and powerlines with some structural damage. The full extent of impacts from this event is still being determined as recovery and assessment efforts are still underway.
9. Increasing Confidence and Transparency in Your Catastrophe Risk Decisions: Could you afford to find that the portfolio you just acquired in North Carolina is more exposed to hurricane than previously assumed? What if next year’s Category 2 hurricane caused a loss in excess of 15 percent of your policyholders’ surplus? How will the changes in the U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Maps impact your exposure to earthquake risk in the central and eastern United States?
10. China Risk Oriented Solvency System (C-ROSS): The China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC) is instituting sweeping changes through its three-tiered China Risk Oriented Solvency System (C-ROSS) framework that will dramatically impact how (re)insurers conduct business. It will strengthen capital requirements, risk management and transparency disclosures - bringing China in line with, and in some cases overtaking, global standards. The C-ROSS framework is similar to Solvency II: three tiers focusing on quantitative, qualitative and disclosure requirements.
The impacts to society from changes in longevity and life expectancy will be wide-ranging and incredibly difficult issues to grapple with. A 2012 International Monetary Fund (IMF) study revealed that if individuals lived three years longer than expected the cost of aging could increase by 50 percent. This translates to 50 percent of 2010 gross domestic product (GDP) in advanced economies and 25 percent of 2010 GDP in emerging economies. Globally that amounts to tens of trillions of US dollars. The United Nations expects the aggregate expenses of the elderly will double over the period between 2010 and 2050. The figure below shows the projected trend of rising life expectancy to continue in all regions of the globe regardless of economic advancement.
As greater understanding of the cyber peril is gained, a chief concern for (re)insurers is risk aggregation. Unlike traditional property insurance where aggregation is monitored by physical locations, insurers are exposed to the possibility of a single attack or a series of attacks either against multiple insureds or a single insured (such as a cloud provider) that could lead to substantial losses across multiple geographies. While a large systemic risk has not yet materialized, it does not mean the risk is not present. The challenging part is that there is limited history and lack of data for this emerging exposure, which makes it difficult for insurers to measure cyber risk and calculate capital needs.