June 16th, 2016

Earthquake Coverage in Japan, Part II: Residential, Commercial, Industrial and Earthquake Fire Expense Insurance

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

The other source of residential earthquake insurance is through a limited number of cooperative insurers. As opposed to residential earthquake insurance under the government’s program, cooperative earthquake insurance is entirely run and managed by each individual cooperative insurer that writes the class, with no governmental support. The original policy terms tend to be somewhat similar in basic design to those of the government’s program backed policies, but reinsurance arrangements are entirely at the discretion of the individual cooperatives. Almost all the cooperatives writing this class purchase non-proportional reinsurance from the international reinsurance market and, in certain cases, also access the capital markets for protection via catastrophe bond issuance.

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June 15th, 2016

Earthquake Coverage In Japan, Part I

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

Japan is known for its earthquake potential; and like many other earthquake-prone countries, the government participates in insuring earthquake risk. For houses and residential buildings there are two major sources of earthquake insurance. One is via commercial non-life insurance companies with support from the government and the other is via cooperative insurers. For all buildings and man-made structures other than houses and residential buildings, earthquake insurance is available from commercial non-life insurance companies, albeit on a strictly controlled basis.

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June 14th, 2016

Guy Carpenter Appoints CEO of GC Stockholm

Posted at 11:20 PM ET

Guy Carpenter today announced the appointment of Tobias Andersson as CEO of GC Stockholm, effective April 1, 2017. He will succeed Tomas Ljungqvist, who will become Chairman of the division.

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June 14th, 2016

Kumamoto Earthquake: Seismic Risk in the Kyushu Area

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

The Ryukyu Trench is situated southeast of Kyushu where the Philippine Sea plate begins its subduction beneath Japan. While earthquakes have occurred several hundred kilometers northwest of the Ryukyu Trench, most earthquakes are at significant depths along this subduction zone. Thirteen magnitude 5-plus earthquakes have occurred at shallow depths of less than 50 kilometers (31.1 miles) within 100 kilometers (62.1 miles) of the Kumamoto earthquake over the past century, according to the USGS. In addition to the two events in April, a shallow magnitude 6.6 earthquake occurred in 2005 off the north coast of Kyushu. Two other events occurred in 1975 that were of magnitude 5.8 and 6.1 at distances of 40 kilometers (24.9 miles) and 65 kilometers (40.4 miles) to the northwest. The graphic below from the USGS illustrates the depth of the Ryukyu Trench at 20 kilometer (12.4 miles) increments in orange. The depth of the trench beneath Kumamoto city is roughly 140 plus kilometers (87.0 miles).

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June 13th, 2016

Reserving and Capital Setting: Conclusion

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

The obvious response to the issues emerging risks provide is to make sure reserves and capital position are more than robust enough for any eventuality - however remote - and then release them when the risks fail to materialize. But, there are many arguments against this as a practical strategy:

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June 10th, 2016

Week’s Top Stories: June 4 - 10, 2016

Posted at 6:30 AM ET

Reserving and Capital Setting: Sizing the Problem: There are three main questions to be tackled in sequence:

1. Which emerging risks potentially expose my company?

2. What means do I have to quantify those risks?

3. How are these risks likely to crystalize?

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GC Securities* Completes Catastrophe Bond First Coast Re Ltd. on Behalf of Security First Insurance Company: GC Securities, a division of MMC Securities LLC, a U.S. registered broker-dealer and member FINRA/NFA/SIPC, announced the placement of a single class of the Series 2016-1 Notes with principal amount of USD75,000,000 through the newly formed special purpose insurer domiciled in Bermuda, First Coast Re Ltd., to ultimately benefit Security First Insurance Company (”SFIC”) in SFIC’s first use of catastrophe bond-based reinsurance.

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Chart: Regional Property Catastrophe ROL Index, 1990 to 2016: The chart shows the indexes for United States, United Kingdom, Asia Pacific and Europe.

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Risk Profile, Appetite, and Tolerance: Fundamental Concepts in Risk Management and Reinsurance Effectiveness: Prior to the recent turbulence in the financial markets, insurers and reinsurers were increasing their use of enterprise risk management (ERM) to make risk and capital management decisions. While this was driven in part by rating agencies and regulators, many carriers began to recognize the value of metric-based frameworks and capital models in evaluating their portfolios.

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China Risk Oriented Solvency System (C-ROSS): The China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC) is instituting sweeping changes through its three-tiered China Risk Oriented Solvency System (C-ROSS) framework that will dramatically impact how (re)insurers conduct business. It will strengthen capital requirements, risk management and transparency disclosures - bringing China in line with, and in some cases overtaking, global standards.

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And, You May Have Missed…

Reconciling Corporate Culture and Government Bureaucracy: Differing approaches between the accountability and transparency required of public entities and near term profit expectations of the private sector can result in culture clashes. (Re)insurance support is a function of profit potential over time. The following factors should be considered to align the competing interests of public and private sector entities.

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*Securities or investments, as applicable, are offered in the United States through GC Securities, a division of MMC Securities LLC, a US registered broker-dealer and member FINRA/NFA/SIPC. Main Office: 1166 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. Phone: (212) 345-5000. Securities or investments, as applicable, are offered in the European Union by GC Securities, a division of MMC Securities (Europe) Ltd. (MMCSEL), which is authorized and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority, main office 25 The North Colonnade, Canary Wharf, London E14 5HS. Reinsurance products are placed through qualified affiliates of Guy Carpenter & Company, LLC. MMC Securities LLC, MMC Securities (Europe) Ltd. and Guy Carpenter & Company, LLC are affiliates owned by Marsh & McLennan Companies. This communication is not intended as an offer to sell or a solicitation of any offer to buy any security, financial instrument, reinsurance or insurance product. **GC Analytics is a registered mark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

June 9th, 2016

Reserving and Capital Setting: The Crystalization of Emerging Risks, Part II

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

The chart below attempts to illustrate the solvency calculation issue. Suppose the best estimate is 20 and the assessment from modeling is that the 1-in-200-year ultimate loss is 100. If all else stays the same and with the simplifying assumption that the yield curve stays flat, one can say that the sum of the 1-year solvency capital requirements (SCRs) approximated the difference between 100 and 20 (i.e. 80). Yet, because of the discounting, when in time the change in own funds is recognized, is important. The black line represents a linear recognition pattern so the 1-year SCRs are all equal with increments of 10. The blue line represents a Binary Fast recognition so the first year SCR is 80 and the remaining years’ SCR are zero. This means that the deterioration is recognized quickly. The red line again shows binary recognition but with a slow pattern as the movement is only occurring toward the end of the liabilities’ life. The two curves in light blue and light red represent less severe versions of the binary forms.

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June 8th, 2016

Reserving and Capital Setting: The Crystalization of Emerging Risks, Part I

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

As discussed in the Executive Summary of this report, the term “crystalization of risk” refers to the timescale over which we realize that the risk is manifesting itself and how this view changes until ultimate understanding of quantum is reached and all liabilities are discharged. The “Reserving Risks” section in last year’s report, Ahead of the Curve: Understanding Emerging Risks looked at how information emerges in the presence of reserving cycles. The profit or loss in any particular financial year is made up of not only the profit or loss from the same accident year but also any recognized changes in the reserves on prior years.

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June 7th, 2016

Reserving and Capital Setting: Sizing the Problem, Part III: Quantifying Emerging Risks; Expert Judgement

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

Data quality and availability should also be examined in depth. Because the risks are new, the data may not be captured correctly to power the model, which will lead to further uncertainty and may even preclude the use of a model altogether.

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June 6th, 2016

GC Securities* Completes Catastrophe Bond First Coast Re Ltd. on Behalf of Security First Insurance Company

Posted at 5:27 AM ET

GC Securities, a division of MMC Securities LLC, a U.S. registered broker-dealer and member FINRA/NFA/SIPC, today announced the placement of a single class of the Series 2016-1 Notes with principal amount of USD75,000,000 through the newly formed special purpose insurer domiciled in Bermuda, First Coast Re Ltd., to ultimately benefit Security First Insurance Company (”SFIC”) in SFIC’s first use of catastrophe bond-based reinsurance.

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