Posts Tagged ‘risk management’



February 2nd, 2016

Addressing Own Risk and Solvency Assessment/Enterprise Risk Management and Insurance Capital Standard Globally

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

In accordance with the objectives of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) and European Insurance and Occupational Pension Authority (EIOPA), Own Risk and Solvency Assessment (ORSA) is “people and risk-centric,” primarily employing a principles-based approach, as opposed to a rules-based approach. This means that decisions on matters related to risks are largely based on the judgment of individuals relying on underlying facts, as opposed to decisions being made mostly by following intricate sets of rules. This is similar to the principles-based approach taken by International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Although the calculation of the Solvency Capital Requirements (SCR) under Solvency II is rules based, like Insurance Capital Standard (ICS), Solvency II can be a “one size fits all” rules-based approach to capital, especially if the standard formula is used. (Re)insurers will need to find a way to incorporate ICS into their ORSA processes and the vehicle to accomplish this may be through the internal model.

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January 29th, 2016

Marsh and McLennan Companies, in Collaboration With the World Economic Forum, Publish the 11th Annual Global Risks Report

Posted at 10:23 AM ET

wef_16sm1Disruptive shifts in technology, geopolitics, societal expectations, and economic patterns are creating instabilities that are directly impacting events in the world today. The World Economic Forum’s eleventh Global Risks Report highlights the issues that will exacerbate volatility and uncertainty over the next decade - while also presenting opportunities for governments and businesses to build resilience and deliver sustainable growth.

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January 28th, 2016

Own Risk and Solvency Assessment (ORSA) Framework

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

(Re)insurers that are required to implement Own Risk and Solvency Assessment (ORSA), or a similar framework such as Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP), may benefit by adopting a strong ORSA/enterprise risk management (ERM) framework. One such framework that could work on a global basis is illustrated below. 

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January 21st, 2016

China Risk Oriented Solvency System (C-ROSS)

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

The China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC) is instituting sweeping changes through its three-tiered China Risk Oriented Solvency System (C-ROSS) framework that will dramatically impact how (re)insurers conduct business. It will strengthen capital requirements, risk management and transparency disclosures - bringing China in line with, and in some cases overtaking, global standards. The C-ROSS framework is similar to Solvency II: three tiers focusing on quantitative, qualitative and disclosure requirements.

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January 18th, 2016

Regulatory Developments in the United States: Group Supervision and ORSA

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) has stipulated that “the solvency framework of the U.S. system of state-based Insurance regulation has included a review of the holding company system for decades, with an emphasis placed on each insurance legal entity. In light of the 2008 financial crisis and the globalization of insurance business models, as discussed in this report, U.S. insurance regulators have begun to modify their group supervisory framework and have been increasingly involved in developing an international group supervisory framework (1).”

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December 31st, 2015

Developments in Europe: Changes in Reinsurance Decisions

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

Recently, we have seen a change in the way reinsurance is viewed in some companies and groups: The chief financial officer increasingly recognizes reinsurance as an instrument to achieve risk and capital management, rather than using capital measures like equity and sub-debt issuances.

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December 30th, 2015

Developments in Europe: Solvency II, Part II

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

The Own Risk and Solvency Assessment (ORSA) requirements are the key element of the Pillar 2 qualitative risk management requirements. The purpose of an “own risk assessment” by each company is to prove the appropriateness of the standard formula or internal model results if the company has applied for a certified internal model. While the Pillar 1 solvency capital requirement is calculated on a one-year basis to show that a company has enough capital to avoid insolvency through the end of the year in a 1-in-200 year event, the focus in Pillar 2 ORSA is the forward-looking assessment of solvency capital adequacy. Companies need to provide a projection of the risk and capital position for the entire planning period (at least three years), which has to be consistent with the business case balance sheet and profit and loss projection. The aim of ORSA is to demonstrate that there is an adequate level of capital available to support the business plan for a longer period. Based on this planning projection of the risk and capital position, (re)insurers need to define meaningful stress tests and scenarios to show they would be adequately capitalized in adverse scenarios as well. If a company would face solvency issues in certain stress scenarios, it needs to show it has countermeasures in place in order to reach the strategic targets of the corporate and risk strategy again.

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December 29th, 2015

Developments in Europe: Solvency II, Part I

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

After a long period of discussion and many delays, the new European insurance regulatory regime, Solvency II, will commence in January 2016. The rules will be compulsory for all insurance and reinsurance companies and groups in the European Economic Area (EEA). The three pillar approach of Solvency II for (i) quantitative capital requirements, (ii) qualitative risk management standards and (iii) reporting specifications, was derived from the international banking sector regulation (Basel II and Basel III). The Solvency II rules were developed over a period of more than 15 years, and there are many reasons for the long delay. Two notable reasons are differing business models from country to country and pressure on long-term guarantee products. With the goal of creating a common regulatory system in Europe there was much political will to find compromises that allowed different insurance business models in the individual countries to fit into Solvency II, without necessitating many product changes. And the ongoing low interest rate environment continues to create enormous pressure on long-term guarantee products in the private pension system of some European countries.

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December 24th, 2015

A Clearer View of Emerging Risks: Conclusion

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

With the world rapidly changing and evolving, what was the case 10 years ago is not the case today and will not be 10 years from now. As discussed in detail in this report, A Clearer View of Emerging Risks, new technologies can impact people in their everyday lives through the products we use, how long we live, how much we spend to keep ourselves healthy and where our information is stored. All of these carry inherent risks that are new to the world and that may not be a part of the historical dataset upon which (re)insurers rely for pricing and/or establishing proper risk controls.

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December 23rd, 2015

Update on China Counterparty Risk Charges for Offshore Reinsurers: Part II

Posted at 1:00 AM ET

eva-zheng-sm1001graham-jones-951Eva Zheng and Graham Jones

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It is anticipated that the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC) will recognize cash deposits (including premiums withheld), letters of credit (LOC) and certain other forms of collateral. LOCs must be issued by domestic banks with a capital adequacy ratio of no less than 11 percent or by overseas financial institutions with credit ratings equal to or higher than AA-. Cedents will be required to report and re-value their counterparty risk on a quarterly basis and adjust collateral positions accordingly.

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